Die casting is a metal casting process that is characterized by forcing molten metal under high-pressure into a mold cavity. The mold cavity is generated using two hardened tool steel dies that have been machined into condition and work similarly to aluminum die casting parts along the way. Most die castings are produced from non-ferrous metals, specifically zinc, copper, aluminium, magnesium, lead, pewter and tin-based alloys. Based on the kind of metal being cast, a hot- or cold-chamber machine can be used.
The casting equipment and also the metal dies represent large capital costs and this tends to limit the method to high-volume production. Production of parts using die casting is relatively simple, involving only four main steps, which keeps the incremental cost per item low. It is especially best for a huge amount of small- to medium-sized castings, which is why die casting produces more castings than any other casting process. Die castings are seen as a a good surface finish (by casting standards) and dimensional consistency.
Two variants are pore-free die casting, which is used to remove gas porosity defects; and direct injection die casting, that is utilized with zinc castings to lessen scrap and increase yield.
Die casting equipment was invented in 1838 just for producing movable type for that printing industry. The first die casting-related patent was granted in 1849 for the small hand-operated machine just for mechanized printing type production. In 1885 Otto Mergenthaler invented the linotype machine, a computerized type-casting device which had become the prominent kind of equipment from the publishing industry. The Soss die-casting machine, created in Brooklyn, NY, was the initial machine to become available in the open market in Canada And America. Other applications grew rapidly, with die casting facilitating the expansion of consumer goods and appliances simply by making affordable the creation of intricate parts in high volumes. In 1966, General Motors released the Acurad process.
The key die casting alloys are: zinc, aluminium, magnesium, copper, lead, and tin; although uncommon, ferrous die casting can also be possible. Specific die casting alloys include: Zamak; zinc aluminium; aluminum die casting to, e.g. The Aluminum Association (AA) standards: AA 380, AA 384, AA 386, AA 390; and AZ91D magnesium.F This is a summary of the advantages of each alloy:
Zinc: the easiest metal to cast; high ductility; high impact strength; easily plated; economical for small parts; promotes long die life.
Aluminium: lightweight; high dimensional stability for complex shapes and thin walls; good corrosion resistance; good mechanical properties; high thermal and electrical conductivity; retains strength at high temperatures.
Magnesium: the simplest metal to machine; excellent strength-to-weight ratio; lightest alloy commonly die cast.
Copper: high hardness; high corrosion resistance; highest mechanical properties of alloys die cast; excellent wear resistance; excellent dimensional stability; strength approaching that from steel parts.
Silicon tombac: high-strength alloy made from copper, zinc and silicon. Often used as a substitute for investment casted steel parts.
Lead and tin: high density; extremely close dimensional accuracy; employed for special kinds of corrosion resistance. Such alloys are certainly not used in foodservice applications for public health reasons. Type metal, an alloy of lead, tin and antimony (with sometimes traces of copper) is utilized for casting hand-set enter letterpress printing and hot foil blocking. Traditionally cast at your fingertips jerk moulds now predominantly die cast once the industrialisation from the type foundries. Around 1900 the slug casting machines came to the market and added further automation, with sometimes dozens of casting machines at one newspaper office.
There are a number of geometric features to be considered when producing a parametric style of a die casting:
Draft is the volume of slope or taper provided to cores or any other aspects of the die cavity to allow for simple ejection of the casting in the die. All die cast surfaces that are parallel towards the opening direction of the die require draft for that proper ejection of your casting in the die. Die castings that come with proper draft are easier to remove through the die and bring about high-quality surfaces and more precise finished product.
Fillet may be the curved juncture of two surfaces that might have otherwise met at the sharp corner or edge. Simply, fillets may be included in a die casting to remove undesirable edges and corners.
Parting line represents the point in which two different sides of the mold get together. The position of the parting line defines which side of your die may be the cover and the ejector.
Bosses are put into die castings to offer as stand-offs and mounting points for parts that should be mounted. For maximum integrity and strength of your die casting, bosses will need to have universal wall thickness.
Ribs are put into a die casting to offer added support for designs which require maximum strength without increased wall thickness.
Holes and windows require special consideration when die casting because the perimeters of these features will grip for the die steel during solidification. To counteract this affect, generous draft must be put into hole and window features.
There are two basic kinds of die casting machines: hot-chamber machines and cold-chamber machines. They are rated by how much clamping force they can apply. Typical ratings are between 400 and 4,000 st (2,500 and 25,400 kg).
Hot-chamber die casting
Schematic of a hot-chamber machine
Hot-chamber die casting, often known as gooseneck machines, depend on a pool of molten metal to give the die. At the start of the cycle the piston from the machine is retracted, that allows the molten metal to fill the “gooseneck”. The pneumatic- or hydraulic-powered piston then forces this metal out of your die casting parts in to the die. The advantages of this method include fast cycle times (approximately 15 cycles one minute) and the comfort of melting the metal in the casting machine. The disadvantages on this system are that it is confined to use with low-melting point metals which aluminium cannot 21dexupky used because it picks up a number of the iron whilst in the molten pool. Therefore, hot-chamber machines are primarily used in combination with zinc-, tin-, and lead-based alloys.
These are generally used when the casting alloy cannot be used in hot-chamber machines; such as aluminium, zinc alloys with a large composition of aluminium, magnesium and copper. The procedure for these particular machines start out with melting the metal in a separate furnace. A precise volume of molten metal is transported for the cold-chamber machine where it really is fed into an unheated shot chamber (or injection cylinder). This shot is then driven in to the die from a hydraulic or mechanical piston. The greatest disadvantage of this method is definitely the slower cycle time as a result of should transfer the molten metal from your furnace to the cold-chamber machine.